Automatic Cruise Control

How does it work?

Automatic Cruise Control (ACC) uses distance-sensing technology that automatically reduces or accelerates the speed of the vehicle to maintain a constant distance between two vehicles.

ACC systems are an extension of conventional cruise control (CCC) systems that adjust vehicle speed and provide a specific distance to the vehicle ahead by automatically controlling the accelerator and/or brake. A key part of an ACC system is the range sensor, such as a radar, lidar or video camera, which measures the distance and relative speed of the two successive vehicles. In the absence of a vehicle ahead, a vehicle equipped with ACC travels at a speed set by the user controlling the accelerator, much like operating a CCC system.

Adaptive cruise control switch


  • Increases comfort and safety for the driver, is functional for long trips, and in turn optimizes fuel use and engine performance.
  • It allows you to set and manipulate the speed more precisely, for which steering wheel controls are available.
  • Considerably improves attention to the rest of the elements of the road and avoids both visual and physical effort that can occur in the driver.
  • By maintaining safety distances and regulating speed, it improves traffic at an overall level, by generating a smoother drive (i.e., all vehicles traveling at same speed), all the while reducing accidents.
  • This technology is becoming increasingly standard or optional in best-selling vehicles.


  • Depending on where you drive, ACC can generate a type of relaxation on the part of the driver that can easily distract them (i.e., lower concentration on the driving task).
  • Depends on the terrain and the qualities of the road for optimal performance.
  • The effectiveness of automatic braking is not comparable to that of the brake pedal, which is why driver vigilance is required.
  • If drivers can set the following distance, some of them may set it so they are too close to a vehicle in front of them increasing the risk of a rear end collision in case of a rapid necessity of takeover.

Common names

  • Adaptive cruise control
  • Adaptive cruise control with low speed
  • Adaptive cruise control with tail assist
  • Adaptive cruise control with stop
  • Adaptive cruise control with Stop & Go
  • Advanced Intelligent Cruise Control (ASCC)
  • Dynamic cruise control of all speeds
  • Camera-based cruise control
  • Distance assistance
  • Distance pilot
  • Distronic
  • Active Distronic
  • Distronic Plus
  • Cruise control with dynamic radar
  • Cruise control with high-speed dynamic radar
  • Smart Cruise Control (ICC)
  • OEM 1 Adaptive cruise control with Stop & Go
  • OEM 2 Radar cruise control
  • Smart cruise control (stop/start)
  • Traffic-conscious cruise control

Latest Publications on PubMed

Search results for: adaptive cruise control

  • Age-related differences in takeover performance: A comparative analysis of older and younger drivers in prolonged partially automated driving
    by Hengyan Pan on June 11, 2024 at 10:00 am

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the necessity of addressing the impaired takeover performance due to cognitive decline in older drivers and discourage them from engaging in inappropriate NDRTs, thereby reducing their crash risk during automated driving.

  • Adaptive Cruise Control Based on Safe Deep Reinforcement Learning
    by Rui Zhao on April 27, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC) enables efficient, safe, and intelligent vehicle control by autonomously adjusting speed and ensuring a safe following distance from the vehicle in front. This paper proposes a novel adaptive cruise system, namely the Safety-First Reinforcement Learning Adaptive Cruise Control (SFRL-ACC). This system aims to leverage the model-free nature and high real-time inference efficiency of Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) to overcome the challenges of modeling difficulties...

  • Hardware Schemes for Smarter Indoor Robotics to Prevent the Backing Crash Framework Using Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Multi-Robots
    by Mudasar Basha on March 28, 2024 at 10:00 am

    The use of smart indoor robotics services is gradually increasing in real-time scenarios. This paper presents a versatile approach to multi-robot backing crash prevention in indoor environments, using hardware schemes to achieve greater competence. Here, sensor fusion was initially used to analyze the state of multi-robots and their orientation within a static or dynamic scenario. The proposed novel hardware scheme-based framework integrates both static and dynamic scenarios for the execution of...

  • Safety-oriented automated vehicle longitudinal control considering both stability and damping behavior
    by Yulu Dai on February 4, 2024 at 11:00 am

    Extensive research has examined the potential benefits of Automated Vehicles (AVs) for increasing traffic capacity and improving safety. However, previous studies on AV longitudinal control have focused primarily on control stability and instability or tradeoffs between safety and stability, neglecting the importance of vehicle damping characteristics. This study aims to demonstrate the significance of explicitly considering safety in addition to stability in AV longitudinal control through...

  • Coordinated Decision Control of Lane-Change and Car-Following for Intelligent Vehicle Based on Time Series Prediction and Deep Reinforcement Learning
    by Kun Zhang on January 23, 2024 at 11:00 am

    Adaptive cruise control and autonomous lane-change systems represent pivotal advancements in intelligent vehicle technology. To enhance the operational efficiency of intelligent vehicles in combined lane-change and car-following scenarios, we propose a coordinated decision control model based on hierarchical time series prediction and deep reinforcement learning under the influence of multiple surrounding vehicles. Firstly, we analyze the lane-change behavior and establish boundary conditions...

  • Factors Influencing Trust in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems for Current Users
    by Chelsea A DeGuzman on January 12, 2024 at 11:00 am

    Understanding the factors influencing trust in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) may help inform training and education to support appropriate use. We surveyed 369 drivers with experience using both adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assist (LKA). The survey included questions to assess trust in ADAS, along with objective knowledge about ADAS limitations, self-reported understanding of ADAS, familiarity with technology, propensity to trust technology, and demographics....

  • Existence of connected and autonomous vehicles in mixed traffic: Impacts on safety and environment
    by Shanshan Wei on January 2, 2024 at 11:00 am

    CONCLUSIONS: By introducing CAVs into the road traffic system, traffic operation safety and environmental quality will be improved, with a more stable flow status, lower collision risk, and less air pollution.

  • Does in-vehicle automation help individuals with Parkinson's disease? A preliminary analysis
    by Wayne C W Giang on October 30, 2023 at 10:00 am

    INTRODUCTION: PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects, according to the ICF, body systems (cognitive, visual, and motor), and functions (e.g., decreased executive functions, decreased visual acuity, impaired contrast sensitivity, decreased coordination)-all which impact driving performance, an instrumental activity of daily living in the domain of "Activity" and "Participation" according to the ICF. Although there is strong evidence of impaired driving performance in PD, few...

  • A Comprehensive Eco-Driving Strategy for CAVs with Microscopic Traffic Simulation Testing Evaluation
    by Ozgenur Kavas-Torris on October 28, 2023 at 10:00 am

    In this paper, a comprehensive deterministic Eco-Driving strategy for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) is presented. In this setup, multiple driving modes calculate speed profiles that are ideal for their own set of constraints simultaneously to save fuel as much as possible, while a High-Level (HL) controller ensures smooth and safe transitions between the driving modes for Eco-Driving. This Eco-Driving deterministic controller for an ego CAV was equipped with Vehicle-to-Infrastructure...

  • Car Bumper Effects in ADAS Sensors at Automotive Radar Frequencies
    by Isabel Expósito on October 14, 2023 at 10:00 am

    Radars in the W-band are being integrated into car bumpers for functionalities such as adaptive cruise control, collision avoidance, or lane-keeping. These Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS) enhance traffic security in coordination with Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). This paper analyzes the attenuation effect that car bumpers cause on the signals passing through them. Using the free-space transmission technique inside an anechoic chamber, we measured the attenuation caused by car...

  • Control Architecture for Connected Vehicle Platoons: From Sensor Data to Controller Design Using Vehicle-to-Everything Communication
    by Razvan-Gabriel Lazar on September 9, 2023 at 10:00 am

    A suitable control architecture for connected vehicle platoons may be seen as a promising solution for today's traffic problems, by improving road safety and traffic flow, reducing emissions and fuel consumption, and increasing driver comfort. This paper provides a comprehensive overview concerning the defining levels of a general control architecture for connected vehicle platoons, intending to illustrate the options available in terms of sensor technologies, in-vehicle networks, vehicular...

  • Beyond adaptive cruise control and lane centering control: drivers' mental model of and trust in emerging ADAS technologies
    by Chunxi Huang on August 24, 2023 at 10:00 am

    INTRODUCTION: The potential safety benefits of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) highly rely on drivers' appropriate mental models of and trust in ADAS. Current research mainly focused on drivers' mental model of adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane centering control (LCC), but rarely investigated drivers' understanding of emerging driving automation functions beyond ACC and LCC.

  • Adaptive Cruise System Based on Fuzzy MPC and Machine Learning State Observer
    by Jianhua Guo on July 8, 2023 at 10:00 am

    Under the trend of vehicle intelligentization, many electrical control functions and control methods have been proposed to improve vehicle comfort and safety, among which the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system is a typical example. However, the tracking performance, comfort and control robustness of the ACC system need more attention under uncertain environments and changing motion states. Therefore, this paper proposes a hierarchical control strategy, including a dynamic normal wheel load...

  • Data generation for connected and automated vehicle tests using deep learning models
    by Ye Li on June 28, 2023 at 10:00 am

    For the simulation-based test and evaluation of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs), the trajectory of the background vehicle has a direct effect on the performance of CAVs and experiment outcomes. The collected real trajectory data are limited by the sample size and diversity, and may exclude critical attribute combinations that are of vital importance for CAVs' tests. Consequently, it is indispensable to increase the richness of accessible trajectory data. In this study, we developed the...

  • Frequency and Quality of Exposure to Adaptive Cruise Control and Impact on Trust, Workload, and Mental Models
    by Ganesh Pai on June 19, 2023 at 10:00 am

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) support drivers with some driving tasks. However, drivers may lack appropriate knowledge about ADAS resulting in inadequate mental models. This may result in drivers misusing ADAS, or mistrusting the technologies, especially after encountering edge-case events (situations beyond the capability of an ADAS where the system may malfunction or fail) and may also adversely affect driver workload. Literature suggests mental models could be improved through...