Forward Collision Mitigation

How does it work?

Forward collision mitigation (FCM) systems detect the distance and speed at which a vehicle is travelling forward toward a vehicle ahead and apply brakes if the driver does not respond on their own. These systems respond to the clear need of drivers to constantly monitor their environment, and quickly prevent unexpected events.

Forward collision mitigation should not be confused with forward collision warnings. A mitigation system will warn the driver and slow down the vehicle, while a warning system will only warn the driver. In addition, some systems will only detect other moving vehicles or vehicles travelling at a minimum speed, while others will detect both moving and stationary vehicles. Implementations of this class of technology may include forward collision warning (FCW) and brake assist (BA) technology that pre-prepares the braking system.

Graphic showing autonomous emergency braking or forward collision mitigation


  • Many drivers do not realize when they are entering a possible crash situation which may result in a delayed reaction and hence a collision. These mitigation systems work to reduce the chance of collisions and reduce the severity of collisions when they occur.
  • It represents a clear benefit for people with disabilities or older adults who cannot react as quickly to certain incidents.
  • Many drivers are not used to dealing with safety-critical braking situations and do not apply enough braking force to avoid a crash. FCM is designed to reduce the number and severity of these types of collisions.


  • Current systems are not capable of preventing all possible forms of crash; the driver must always maintain proper control of the vehicle.
  • Currently, climate and environmental conditions (e.g., snow, heavy rain, fog) can influence the system. Camera-based systems are less effective at night than radar-based systems. In addition, camera-based systems can be “blinded” by direct sunlight (e.g., early dawn and late sunset). Both radar and camera systems can be obscured by snow/ice buildup in front of sensors.

Common names

  • Active Brake Assist
  • Approach control warning with city light braking function
  • Automatic emergency braking
  • Automatic emergency braking with pedestrian detection
  • BAS Plus with cross traffic assist
  • City collision mitigation
  • Security in the city
  • Collision avoidance assistance
  • Collision mitigation braking system
  • Collision Avoidance Assist Plus
  • Collision warning with fully automatic braking and pedestrian and cyclist detection
  • Emergency braking
  • Evasive steering assistance
  • Front automatic braking
  • Forward collision avoidance assist with pedestrian detection
  • Forward collision mitigation
  • Forward collision warning and autonomous emergency braking with pedestrian detection (forward assist)
  • Forward collision warning with active braking
  • Forward collision warning with brake mount
  • Forward collision warning with mitigation operation
  • Head-on collision avoidance assist
  • Forward collision avoidance assist with pedestrian detection
  • Front emergency braking
  • Front pedestrian braking
  • Full speed forward collision warning Plus
  • Intelligent Brake Assist
  • Automatic low-speed braking forward
  • OEM 1 Pre-Sense City
  • OEM 1 Pre-Sense Front
  • OEM 4 Active Safe
  • Pedestrian protection
  • Person warning with City light braking function
  • Pre-Collision Assist
  • Pre-collision assistance with pedestrian detection
  • Pre-collision braking system
  • Pre-collision system
  • Pre-Collision System with Pedestrian Detection
  • Pre-safe brake with pedestrian detection
  • Intelligent brake support
  • Smart City brake support

Latest Publications on PubMed

Search results for: forward collision mitigation

  • Multigene and Improved Anti-Collision RRT* Algorithms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Task Allocation and Route Planning in an Urban Air Mobility Scenario
    by Qiang Zhou on March 27, 2024 at 10:00 am

    Compared to terrestrial transportation systems, the expansion of urban traffic into airspace can not only mitigate traffic congestion, but also foster establish eco-friendly transportation networks. Additionally, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) task allocation and trajectory planning are essential research topics for an Urban Air Mobility (UAM) scenario. However, heterogeneous tasks, temporary flight restriction zones, physical buildings, and environment prerequisites put forward challenges for...

  • "Ghost" Fragment Ions in Structure and Site-Specific Glycoproteomics Analysis
    by Diana Campos on June 29, 2023 at 10:00 am

    Mass spectrometry (MS) can unlock crucial insights into the intricate world of glycosylation analysis. Despite its immense potential, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of isobaric glycopeptide structures remains one of the most daunting hurdles in the field of glycoproteomics. The ability to distinguish between these complex glycan structures poses a significant challenge, hindering our ability to accurately measure and understand the role of glycoproteins in biological systems. A few...